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allspice, 1 teaspoon ground
1/2 teaspoon cinnamon and 1/4 teaspoon each, nutmeg and ground cloves
1/2 teaspoon cinnamon and 1/2 teaspoon cloves

amaretto, 2 tablespoons
1/4 to 1/2 teaspoon almond extract

arrowroot, 1 1/2 teaspoons
1 tablespoon flour

baking powder, 1 teaspoon
1/4 teaspoon baking soda and 5/8 teaspoon cream of tartar

baking powder, 2 tablespoons
1 teaspoon cream of tartar and 1/2 teaspoon baking soda

balsamic vinegar, 1 tablespoon
1 tablespoon red wine vinegar plus 1/2 teaspoon sugar

bamboo shoots
asparagus in fried recipes


bouquet garni, 1 teaspoon
1/2 teaspoon each dried parsley flakes, dried thyme leaves, and 1 bay leaf (crushed)

butter, 1 cup
7/8 cup vegetable shortening

buttermilk, 1 cup
1 tablespoon distilled white vinegar or lemon juice stirred into 1 cup soy milk and allowed to stand for 5 minutes

cake yeast, 5/8-ounce cake
1 packet active dry yeast

ginger ale

yellow summer squash

chervil, 1 teaspoon
1 teaspoon dried parsley flakes plus 1/8 teaspoon rubbed, dried sage

chili sauce
ketchup with prepared horseradish and lemon juice to taste

chinese black vinegar
balsamic vinegar

chocolate, semi-sweet, 1 ounce
3 tablespoons chocolate chips or 1/2 ounce unsweetened chocolate plus 1 tablespoon sugar

cinnamon, 1 teaspoon ground
1/2 teaspoon ground allspice or 1 teaspoon ground cardamom

cocoa, unsweetened
Dutch-processed cocoa

coconut milk, 2 cups
combine 2 1/2 cups water and 2 cups shredded, unsweetened coconut and bring to a boil. remove from heat; cool. mix in a blender for 2 minutes; strain.

peach, apricot, or pear juice

cornstarch for thickening, 1 tablespoon
2 tablespoons all-purpose flour or 1 tablespoon potato, rice, or arrowroot starch

creme de menth
spearmint extract or oil of spearmint diluted with a little water or grapefruit juice for white; for green add a drop of green food coloring

delicata squash
butternut squash or sweet potatoes

dry bread crumbs, 1/4 cup
1 sandwich-size slice crisp bread, crushed

dry red wine
red grape juice, cranberry juice, vegetable broth

eggs, 1 egg
1 1/2 teaspoons powder Ener-G Egg Replacer plus 2 tablespoons water for baking and binding

five-spice powder
equal parts cinnamon, cloves, fennel seeds, star anise and Szechuan peppercorns

flour, 1 cup
1 1/2 cups fine bread crumbs

flour, all-purpose, 1 cup
1 cup plus 2 tablespoons cake flour

flour, cake, 1 cup
1 cup minus 2 tablespoons all-purpose flour

flour, self-rising, 1 cup
1 cup all-purpose flour plus 1 1/2 teaspoons baking powder and 1/2 teaspoon salt

fresh herbs, 1 tablespoon
1 teaspoon dried herbs

garlic, 1 clove
1/8 teaspoon garlic powder

ginger, 1/2 teaspoon grated
1/4 teaspoon ground ginger

ginger, 1 teaspoon ground
1/2 teaspoon ground mace plus 1/2 teaspoon grated Lemon peel

grand marnier or orange flavored liqueur, 2 tablespoons
2 tablespoons unsweetened orange juice and 1/2 teaspoon orange extract

green mangoes
sour, green cooking apples

green or red bell pepper, 2 tablespoons chopped
1 tablespoon sweet pepper flakes (let stand in liquid as directed)

habanero peppers
5 jalapeno peppers or serrano peppers

italian herb seasoning
mixture of oregano, marjoram, thyme, basil, rosemary and sage

kahlua or coffee or chocolate flavored liqueur, 2 tablespoons
1/2 to 1 teaspoon chocolate extract or 1/2 teaspoon to 1 teaspoon instant coffee in 2 tablespoons water

ketchup or tomato-based chili sauce, 1 cup
1 8 oz. can tomato sauce plus 1/2 cup granulated sugar and 2 tablespoons distilled white vinegar kirsch
cherry, rasberry, or currant syrup

lemon grass, 1 tablespoon minced
1 teaspoon grated lemon rind

lemon juice, 1 teaspoon
1/2 teaspoon white wine vinegar or cider vinegar

lemon juice, 1 lemon
3 tablespoons
bottled lemon juice

lemon peel, 1 teaspoon minced or zest of 1 lemon
1 teaspoon dry lemon peel light brown sugar, 1 cup 1/2 cup dark brown sugar and 1/2 cup granulated sugar

mint chocolate chips
in an airtight container add 1/8 teaspoon of peppermint extract to a 12 oz. bag of dark chocolate chips. let sit for 24 hours.

diced celery

mustard, dry, 1 teaspoon
1 tablespoon prepared mustard

mustard, prepared, 1 teaspoon
1 teaspoon dry mustard mixed with 2 teaspoons wine vinegar, white wine or water

nutmeg, 1 teaspoon ground
1 teaspoon ground allspice or 1 teaspoon ground cloves or 1 teaspoon ground mace

oats, old fashioned rolled
quick cooking oats

onion, 1/4 cup minced
1 tablespoon instant minced onion (let stand in liquid as directed)

onion, 1 medium onion
2 teaspoons onion powder

orange juice, 1 medium orange
1/4 cup reconstituted frozen orange juice

orange peel, 1 teaspoon grated
1 teaspoon dry orange peel

palm sugar
light brown sugar

parsley, 2 tablespoons minced
1 tablespoon parsley flakes

pine nuts
walnuts or almonds

port wine
red grape juice

poultry seasoning, 1 teaspoon 1/4 teaspoon
ground thyme plus 3/4 teaspoon ground sage

pumpkin pie spice, 1 teaspoon
1/2 teaspoon cinnamon mixed with 1/8 teaspoon each: ground ginger, nutmeg, mace, cloves

raisins, dark
golden raisins or currants

rum (light or dark)
water, white grape juice, pineapple juice, apple juice, apple cider, syrup flavored with almond extract

turmeric, for color

sake or rice wine
dry sherry or dry vermouth

seasoned rice vinegar, 1 tablespoon
1 tablespoon rice vinegar or white vinegar, 1/2 teaspoon sugar and 1/8 teaspoon salt

self-rising flour, 1 cup
1 cup all purpose flour plus 1 1/2 teaspoons baking powder and 1/8 teaspoon salt

red onions or spanish onions

orange juice, pineapple juice, peach syrup

shortening, 1 cup
1 cup margarine

sifted cake flour, 1 cup
3/4 cup plus 2 tablespoons sifted all-purpose flour or all-purpose flour sifted 3 times, then measured to make 1 cup

sour cream, 1 cup
1 cup plain soy yogurt

sugar, granulated, 1 cup
1 cup firmly packed brown sugar, flavor will be affected 1/2 cup corn syrup or molasses and reduce liquid in recipe by 1/2 cup

sugar, powdered, 1 cup
1 cup granulated sugar plus 1/8 teaspoon cornstarch processed in a food processor fitted with a metal blade

sweet white wine
White grape juice plus 1 tablespoon white Karo syrup

tamarind juice
5 parts ketchup to 1 part vinegar

tamarind paste, 1 tablespoon
1 teaspoon each, date, prunes, dried apricots, lemon juice

tomatoes, 1 can (1 lb.)
2 1/2 cups chopped, peeled fresh tomatoes, simmered for about 10 minutes

tomato juice, 1 cup
1/2 cup tomato sauce plus 1/2 cup water

tomato paste

tomato sauce, 1 cup
3/8 cup tomato paste and 1/2 cup water

vanilla bean, 1
1 teaspoon pure vanilla extract

whipped cream, 1 cup
puree a banana, then whip with the equivalent of an egg white. add vanilla and sugar to taste

whipping cream (40% fat), 1 cup
1/3 cup margarine plus 3/4 cup soy milk

white wine, for cooking
dry vermouth, water, vegetable broth, liquid drained from canned vegetables, ginger ale, white grape juice

wine, 1/2 cup
1/2 cup fruit juice for desserts and 1 /2 cup vegetable broth for savory recipes


Sour cream
Plain nonfat or low-fat yogurt or nonfat sour cream

Whole milk, nondairy creamers, half-and-half
Skim (nonfat) or low-fat (1 percent) milk

Cheeses like cheddar, Swiss, American, Jack
Lower-fat cheeses like part-skim ricotta, low-fat and cream cheese, Jarlsberg, cottage cheese, and Neufchatel

Ice cream
Nonfat or low-fat frozen yogurt, ice milk, fruit ices, or sherbet

A whole egg
Two egg whites or 1/4 cup egg substitute

1 ounce baking chocolate
3 Tablespoons cocoa powder plus 1 tablespoon vegetable oil

Fat in baking recipes
Equal amounts fruit puree like prune, or applesauce

Whipping or heavy cream
Evaporated skim milk or one part skim milk and one part cream

Bake or roast on a rack, broil, grill, steam, or microwave

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